Photovoltaics   What exactly is solar power or photovoltaics? As solar power is defined as electrical energy, which was converted from solar energy (sunlight) (photovoltaic energy). The shape of the conversion of light into electricity, is called the photoelectric and photovoltaic effect. This form of energy (solar power) is among the renewable energies, since they are constantly on the ground is available and that for nothing. This form of energy will cost you a cent. What is the difference between photovoltaic and solar thermal engineering? Basically, it is to be differed between photovoltaic and solar thermal engineering: a pv plant produces electricity and a solar thermal plant uses the sun energy to heat up industrial water (hot water). What does kilowatt (kWp) and watt peak (Wp) mean? Translated does peak mean “top”. This word is used to quote the peak output of pv modules under certain test conditions   Where can photovoltaic systems are installed? Those interested in installing a photovoltaic system is, sooner or later face the problem of where the best place to install on or in buildings or outdoors on a field. Basically, a photovoltaic system to be installed almost anywhere, where the conditions are right. Whether these are given to the solar engineer checked at the inspection. What happens if the sun does not shine, resp. what happens in winter? Not only direct insolation is used but also indirect, so called diffused light, e. g. on cloudy days. A pv plant also produces electricity on those days. In winter, the snow reflects the sunlight which is beneficial. What happens after 20 years duration of the pv plant if the guarantied feed-in compensation is expired?   The odds are that a further acceptance of the electricity produced can be agreed after expiry of 20 years with aid of an energy supply company. But you can also use your own electricity. Therefore, you need a further component, for example a battery for buffering the electricity   How long does a pv plant maintain? Pv modules have got an almost unlimited operational life span. The basic feature of the solar technology is that the electricity generation takes place without movable components and therefore without mechanical wastage. Generally it can be assumed from a lifetime span of 30-35 years of a pv plant   Does a pv plant have to be kept in good condition? Usually, a solar plant is maintenance-free. But you have got the possibility to sign a maintenance contract. This maintenance is executed regularly at intervals within a year. So, it can be observed that the pv plant works correct and possible problems can be resolved   Does a pv plant have to be cleaned regularly? In case of tilt angle of >20 ° from the horizontal way, the rain arranges a cleaning of the modules. The surface of the solar modules consists of a special glass that ensures a self-cleaning effect. When we have a tilt angle of < 20 °, the solar modules should be verified once a month of soilings. To reduce soilings, a so-called “Nano”-sealing can be applied (lotus-effect).   Which facilities of insurance cover are provided for a pv plant?   It is possible to insure your pv plant against lightning, hail, etc. . Nowadays, many credit institutions submit very favorable offers, they amount to 80 Euro per year.   What do you understand by efficiency of a solar module? The efficiency and the ratio of the radiant energy and of the sun produced energy of a solar module.   Should someone wait with the purchase of a pv plant? No, the pv technology is sophisticated. The feed-in compensation falls every year. That fast, the price for a plant will not decrease.   Which roof areas come into question? Generally suitable are almost all roofs. For a 3 kW-plant, you need a 30 m² free roof area. The optimal roof pitch in Germany amounts to approximately 30 ° with exact focus to the south. Important is that a Verschattung of the solar modules is prevented by dormers, fireplaces, adjacent buildings and satellite plants   When does a roof area not meet the above-mentioned criterions? The above-mentioned criterions do not correspond to an optimum direction and roof pitch but who has got something like that? But your roof can still have a roof pitch of 10 ° to 50 °. Even if your roof has got a direction to the east or west, there is an alternative through usage of thin film technology to obtain a good return.   Is a building permission required for a pv plant? No, pv plants basically do not need any building permission, as long as they are secured on a building. Caution is advised when it comes to memorial-saved buildings and in the area of agriculture. In this case, further information should be collected. On roofs with asbestos, a solar plan can only be built under certain circumstances (special permission through Authority).   How much return can be realized within a year? This cannot be generalized; it is dependent from a few facts, for example:  the roof pitch, the direction and the isolation values on the site. In Germany, the isolation amounts to between 800 and 1050 kWh per year of each kWp performance installed Is it possible to telemonitor a pv plant?  Yes, it is possible. With the help of a data logger, the return and the performance of the plant are to be controlled. By usage of a web browser, you can run a chance to on computer t control in convenient way the solar plant. Therefore, you just need internet access (e.g. analog, ISDN, DSL).   Why should someone be in favor of a pv plant? ·         The plants are technically matured ·         Solar energy is for free and clean energy ·         Photovoltaic plants stand for ecological sensibility ·         Money can be earned without investing own capital ·         The high lifespan of the solar plant also guaranties usage in the next generation ·         The plant is profitable after 8 to 12 years ·         The sun shines everywhere ·         The solar plants are almost maintenance-free ·         Guaranties accretion of property Does the finance authority refund the VAT and can a plan be charged off?   Yes, as operator of the plant, you are seen as small businessman in the eyes of the financial authority. Therefore, you do not need to register a trade. The paid VAT can be reclaimed by the financial authority. For that, you need to declare yourself subject to turnover tax. The pre-tax received by grid operator needs to be paid to the financial authority and at the end of the year, a revenues-excess calculation has to be raised. The loss generated or profit is considered on the personal income tax- calculation.  A solar plant can be charged off linear 1/20. The duration of charging-off takes 20 years. Solar Promotion and Financing In general, PV systems are under the law of renewable energies (EEG) encouraged.Financing through the bank. The classic way is to finance through your bank.Many local banks offer their customers, as well outside of the KfW loans, provides significant funding opportunities. Talk to your bank. Financing by KfW funds The Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) has low-interest loans for the construction of photovoltaic systems (eg, program 140 generating solar power for systems up to 50,000 €) for you.This is requested via your local bank. Get a loan for the financing of a solar photovoltaic system, should provide good project with no problem. Above all, the legal regulation by the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and the concomitant requirement that the operator of the electricity grid is obligated to take off with the PV system produced electricity and to pay the minimum amounts laid down for the injected current, is a investment for one or the other homeowner worth considering. A good project is financed by itself that is fed by energy.
Markus Wojczyk
Die Solar Topliste.
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